Philippines is divided into three groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean, with the natural resources Philippines has been a mega diverse country. This is officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, the 11th largest island that contains 94% of the total land area.
To protect the country’s biological resources, the government has taken a first step of preparing a Biodiversity Action Plan to address conservation of threatened species.
Philippines’ most extensive river systems are the Pulangi River that flows into the Mindanao River, the Agusan River in Mindanao which flows north into the Mindanao Sea, and the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Philippines has the largest freshwater lake which is the Laguna De Bay that can be found in the east of Manila Bay.
Philippines is considered as the “Pearl of the Orient” with its breathtaking landscapes, thrilling adventure activities, extraordinary beaches, indigenous culture. Philippines boasts of numerous agricultural masterpieces that are high in green mountains around the country, enjoy and have a blast to all the legendary and raucous of Philippine festivals between spectators and participants as you stay a little longer.
The Early Philippines
The Philippines is named after King Philip II of Spain (1556-1598) and it was a Spanish colony for over 300 years.
Today the Philippines is an archipelago of 7,000 islands. However it is believed that during the last ice age they were joined to mainland Asia by a land bridge, enabling human beings to walk from there.
The first people in the Philippines were hunter-gatherers. However between 3,000 BC and 2,000 BC people learned to farm. They grew rice and domesticated animals. From the 10th AD century Filipinos traded with China and by the 12th Century AD Arab merchants reached the Philippines and they introduced Islam.
Then in 1521 Ferdinand Magellan sailed across the Pacific. He landed in the Philippines and claimed them for Spain. Magellan baptized a chief called Humabon and hoped to make him a puppet ruler on behalf of the Spanish crown. Magellan demanded that other chiefs submit to Humabon but one chief named Lapu Lapu refused. Magellan led a force to crush him. However the Spanish soldiers were scattered and Magellan was killed.
The Spaniards did not gain a foothold in the Philippines until 1565 when Miguel Lopez de Legazpi led an expedition, which built a fort in Cebu. Later, in 1571 the Spaniards landed in Luzon. Here they built the city of Intramuros (later called Manila), which became the capital of the Philippines. Spanish conquistadors marched inland and conquered Luzon. They created a feudal system. Spaniards owned vast estates worked by Filipinos.
Along with conquistadors went friars who converted the Filipinos to Catholicism. The friars also built schools and universities.
The Spanish colony in the Philippines brought prosperity - for the upper class. Each year the Chinese exported goods such as silk, porcelain and lacquer to the Philippines. From there they were re-exported to Mexico.
The years passed uneventfully in the Philippines until in 1762 the British captured Manila. They held it for some months but they handed it back in 1764 under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, signed in 1763.
In 1872 there was a rebellion in Cavite but it was quickly crushed. However nationalist feeling continued to grow helped by a writer named Jose Rizal (1861-1896). He wrote two novels Noli Me Tangere (Touch me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Filibusterer) which stoked the fires of nationalism.
In 1892 Jose Rizal founded a movement called Liga Filipina, which called for reform rather than revolution. As a result Rizal was arrested and exiled to Dapitan on Mindanao.
Meanwhile Andres Bonifacio formed a more extreme organization called the Katipunan. In August 1896 they began a revolution. Jose Rizal was accused of supporting the revolution, although he did not and he was executed on 30 December 1896. Yet his execution merely inflamed Filipino opinion and the revolution grew.
Then in 1898 came war between the USA and Spain. On 30 April 1898 the Americans defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. Meanwhile Filipino revolutionaries had surrounded Manila. Their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo declared the Philippines independent on 12 June. However as part of the peace treaty Spain ceded the Philippines to the USA. The Americans planned to take over.
War between American forces in Manila and the Filipinos began on 4 February 1899. The Filipino-American War lasted until 1902 when Aguinaldo was captured.
The Philippines in the 20th Century
American rule in the Philippines was paternalistic. They called their policy 'Benevolent Assimilation'. They wanted to 'Americanize' the Filipinos but they never quite succeeded. However they did do some good. Many American teachers were sent to the Philippines in a ship called the Thomas and they did increase literacy.
In 1935 the Philippines were made a commonwealth and were semi-independent. Manuel Quezon became president. The USA promised that the Philippines would become completely independent in 1945.
However in December 1941 Japan attacked the US fleet at Pearl Harbor. On 10 December 1941 Japanese troops invaded the Philippines. They captured Manila on 2 January 1941. By 6 May 1942 all of the Philippines were in Japanese hands.
However American troops returned to the Philippines in October 1944. They recaptured Manila in February 1945.
The Philippines became independent on 4 July 1946. Manuel Roxas was the first president of the newly independent nation.
Ferdinand Marcos (1917-1989) was elected president in 1965. He was re-elected in 1969. However the Philippines was dogged by poverty and inequality. In the 1960s a land reform programme began. However many peasants were frustrated by its slow progress and a Communist insurgency began in the countryside.
On 21 September 1972 Marcos declared martial law. He imposed a curfew, suspended Congress and arrested opposition leaders.
The Marcos dictatorship was exceedingly corrupt and Marcos and his cronies enriched themselves.
Then, in 1980 opposition leader Benigno Aquino went into exile in the USA. When he returned on 21 August 1983 he was shot. Aquino became a martyr and Filipinos were enraged by his murder.
In February 1986 Marcos called an election. The opposition united behind Cory Aquino the widow of Benigno. Marcos claimed victory (a clear case of electoral fraud). Cory Aquino also claimed victory and ordinary people took to the streets to show their support for her. Marcos's cronies deserted him and he bowed to the inevitable and went into exile.
Things did not go smoothly for Corazan Aquino. (She survived 7 coup attempts). Furthermore the American bases in the Philippines (Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base) were unpopular with many Filipinos who felt they should go. In 1992 Mount Pinatubo erupted and covered Clark in volcanic ash forcing the Americans to leave. They left Subic Bay in 1993.
In 1992 Fidel Ramos became president. He improved the infrastructure in the Philippines including the electricity supply. Industry was privatized and the economy began to grow more rapidly.
However at the end of the 1990s the Philippine economy entered a crisis. Meanwhile in 1998 Joseph Estrada, known as Erap became president. Estrada was accused of corruption and he was impeached in November 2000. Estrada was not convicted. Nevertheless people demonstrated against him and the military withdrew its support. Estrada was forced to leave office and Vice-president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo replaced him. She was re-elected in 2004.
The Philippines in the 21st Century
Today poverty in the Philippines is still common. However in the first years of the 21st century the Philippine economy grew at about 5% a year. The Philippines suffered with the recession of 2009. However the Philippines recovered and today there is reason to be optimistic for the future.
In 2012 Philippine legislators voted for an important reform. They voted for government funding of contraceptives and sex education in schools despite opposition from the Catholic Church.
Today the population of the Philippines is 103 million.
In 1993, cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began. The former base re-emerged as Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) approved by then President Fidel V. Ramos on April 3 of the same year and in 2001, Clark International Airport was renamed Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in honor of Diosdado Macapagal, the father of the president at the time, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The airfield infrastructure was improved and destined to be the premiere airport in the country in the next five years and one of the most modern in Asia. Presently, Angeles City offers a wide array of tourist attractions, recreational facilities and on the rise projects thus, giving regular employment and entertainment to the people.
Angeles city is the home for the city's emerging technology industry. Its economy is based also in tourism. Because it is one of the few cities in the Philippines with an airport, Angeles is visited by foreigners all year round. In the 2000s, the local government of Angeles and Clark Development Corporation rebranded the Fields Avenue tourist belt as a high-end destination with fine restaurants and luxury hotels and casinos. The finishing of roads, such as the Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway, has improved trade and transport. The project connects the industrial, transport and business hubs of Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan and Tarlac
Due to the geographical location on the planet, Philippines has a “Tropical Rainforest Climate” all over the country. Some rainfall can be expected in every month, the rainfall differs greatly through the year. There are 7 warmest months of the year from March to October; the winter monsoon brings cooler air from November to February.
In the Philippines, Bagyo is the local term to any tropical cyclone in the Philippine Islands.
This event is held annually between January and February at Clark Field, Angeles City, Pampanga. Considered to be the biggest aviation sports event in the country, it features multicolored hot-air balloons with more than a hundred balloon pilots from around the world. Using propane gas, huge Hot-air balloons made of nylon and polyester cloth and attached to a huge wicker basket by cables are made to fly as high as 1,000 feet above the ground.